Biology 414: Taxonomy of Seed Plants

 

Introduction to the Course

Biology 414 is offered as an early summer 3 credit course, beginning in early May and ending in early June. This is a field-oriented class that will help students actively learn the major groups of flowering plants and how they are evolutionarily related to each other while identifying them in nature. Students will gain lots of exposure to the abundant native flora of central PA while learning about the natural history of the plants. This is an intensive course, with a semester's worth of information crowded into just over four weeks. Because we will be covering about one week of class time every day, you should expect to devote a minimum of two hours each and every day to studying and homework assignments. However, if you like plants and enjoy the outdoors, this could be the 3 most enjoyable credits you ever earn at Penn State. Opportunities are available to participate in structured research for additional credits following the scheduled end of Bio 414. If interested talk to your instructor.

 

Course Information:

Biol 414: Instructors: Claude dePamphilis, Marcos Caraballo (TA)

 

Tuesdays, Wednesdays & Fridays: 12:45-5:10 P.M.

7 May - 5 June (2013)

 

Syllabus (2013)

 

How to Use the Website

 

Trees of Angiosperm Diversity:

Pretty Picture Tree

Phylogenetic Tree

 

Index to Families

 

Terms

 

 

How to Use This Website

This website is still a work in progress, but currently serves as a supplement for the systematics side of Biology 414. It will supplement class lectures on family identification and field recognition in the course.

The phylogenetic trees shown below and on linked pages represent relationships between angiosperm lineages. Clicking on parts of these trees will take you directly to more information on the group (where provided). Text within major groups is arranged taxonomically by order and then family. In addition, photographic examples of representatives are listed beneath families (including many families that won't be covered in detail in this course).

The text provided herein is meant to serve as a study guide for family recognition in the course. Even when modifiers such as "usually" or "generally" aren't used, the familial characteristics listed are rarely universal within a family. The characteristics indicated are the states most likely to be encountered in eastern North America and Pennsylvania and often are less applicable elsewhere, particularly in the tropics. Family identification is rarely a decision that can be made based on one characteristic; thus, it is always important to rely on a suite of features, because exeptions always exist.

Decisions on which families will be covered in class are subject to change and are based on availability in the field during the course, ecological and economical importance, recognizability, and how interesting they are likely to be to students in the course. Taxonomic treatment of the families in this website follows no rules or prior treatments, but is based on the following criteria: is the family well-supported as a monophyletic group?, is the family recognizable to students in a three week field course?, and how easy is it to teach the family as currently recognized? Of course, no difficult taxonomic decision can satisfy everyone. Traditional taxonomy based on morphology is often easier to learn and creates groups that are readily recognizable to beginning students. However, these groups are sometimes totally artificial or paraphyletic, and a systematic view based on molecular data can provide interesting insight into the evolutionary history of a lineage and associated traits. In cases where taxonomic changes based on molecular evidence are not extremely well-supported (such as combination of Aceraceae, Hippocastaneaceae, and Sapindaceae), traditional circumscription is often used, even though it is likely incorrect. In other cases, such as in the Liliaceae, the family is certainly not monophyletic as included, but until all of the relationships within the group are resolved, it is again instructionally easier to adhere to traditional taxonomy. By contrast, inclusion of Monotropaceae within Ericaceae is very well-supported, and the floral structure of these plants is obviously Ericaceous, despite the fact that the lineage is distinctively non-photosynthetic. Students will be expected to recognize families for field identification based on the treatment in this website, but will also be required to know some background information on taxonomically-debated groups and their likely evolutionary relationships as discussed in class.

Some references consulted during assembly of the information contained here include:

APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group). 1998. An Ordinal Classification for the Families of Flowering Plants." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 85: 531-553.

APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group). 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II." Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 399-436.

APG Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009), An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: AGP III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161:105-21.

Cronquist. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York Botanical Garden.

Gleason and Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden.

Heywood. Flowering Plants of the World. 1978. Mayflower Books.

Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, and P. F. Stevens. 2002. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Second Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Rhoads and Block. 2007. (2nd ed.) The Plants of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Rhoads and Klein. 1993. The Vascular Flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated Checklist and Atlas. American Philosophical Society.

Stevens, P.F. 2002. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website; 27 March 2010. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.

 

While references were consulted for constructing the phylogenetic trees pictured herein, the end product is a conglomeration of multiple references, data from my lab, and my own observations. Thus, due credit for phylogenies should be given to the references above, but blame for any error should fall to me! This website was developed by Joel McNeal when he was a doctoral student in the Biology Department at Penn State University. Updates since Spring 2004 by Claude dePamphilis. All photographs ©2004 Joel McNeal, unless otherwise indicated.

Any corrections for this website and any questions about Biol 414 at Penn State University or the photographs should be e-mailed to Claude dePamphilis

 Angiosperm Diversity

 

 Phylogenetic Tree

 

Index to Families

 

This index provides a quick link to plant families that contain images and/or descriptions on this site. Families are listed in alphabetical order. Those with an asterisk are covered in Biology 414; those in parentheses are included herein under other families.

A, B-Ca, Ce-E, F-J, L-M, N-Pl, Po-R, S-Z

Acanthaceae

*Aceraceae

Acoraceae

Agavaceae

Alismataceae

Alstroemeriaceae

*Amaranthaceae

*Anacardiaceae

Annonaceae

*Apiaceae

*Apocynaceae

Aquifoliaceae

*Araceae

(Araliaceae)

*Aristolochiaceae

(Asclepiadaceae)

Aspleniaceae

*Asteraceae

Balanaphoraceae

Balsaminaceae

*Berberidaceae

*Betulaceae

Blechnaceae

Bombacaceae

*Boraginaceae

Bignoniaceae

*Brassicaceae

Bromeliaceae

Buddlejaceae

(Cabombaceae)

*Cactaceae

(Caesalpiniaceae)

*Campanulaceae

Cannabaceae

*Caprifoliaceae

*Caryophyllaceae

Celastraceae

Celtidaceae

(Chenopodiaceae)

Clusiaceae

Commelinaceae

*Convolvulaceae

*Cornaceae

Crassulaceae

*Cucurbitaceae

Cycadaceae

*Cyperaceae

Dennstaedtiaceae

Dioscoreaceae

*Droseraceae

Dryopteridaceae

Equisetaceae

*Ericaceae

*Euphorbiaceae

*Fabaceae

*Fagaceae

*Fouquieriaceae

(Fumariaceae)

*Gentianaceae

*Geraniaceae

Ginkgoaceae

Grossulariaceae

Gunneraceae

Hamamelidaceae

Heliconiaceae

Hippocastaneaceae

Hydrangeaceae

(Hydrophyllaceae)

Illiciaceae

*Iridaceae

Isoetaceae

*Juglandaceae

*Juncaceae

*Lamiaceae

*Lauraceae

Lentibulariaceae

*Liliaceae

Linaceae

Loasaceae

(Lobeliaceae)

Loganiaceae

Loranthaceae

Lycopodiaceae

Lythraceae

*Magnoliaceae

*Malvaceae

Melastomataceae

Menispermaceae

Misodendraceae

(Monotropaceae)

Myricaceae

*Nelumbonaceae

*Nymphaeaceae

*Oleaceae

*Onagraceae

Ophioglossaceae

*Orchidaceae

*Orobanchaceae

Osmundaceae

Oxalidaceae

*Papaveraceae

Phytolaccaceae

Pinaceae

Piperaceae

*Platanaceae

*Poaceae

*Polemoniaceae

Polygalaceae

*Polygonaceae

Pontederiaceae

Portulacaceae

Primulaceae

Proteaceae

Pteridaceae

(Pyrolaceae)

*Ranunculaceae

Rhamnaceae

*Rosaceae

*Rubiaceae

*Rutaceae

*Salicaceae

Santalaceae

*Sarraceniaceae

Saururaceae

*Saxifragaceae

*Scrophulariaceae

*Solanaceae

Sparganiaceae

Staphyleaceae

Strelitziaceae

Tiliaceae

Ulmaceae

*Urticaceae

*Verbenaceae

Violaceae

Viscaceae

*Vitaceae

Winteraceae

Zamiaceae

Zingiberaceae

 

Index to Photographically-Represented Species

Click on the scientific or common names listed below to skip directly to the family to which each species belongs. Once you are at the family, you may have to scroll down to reach the species photographs you are looking for.

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W-Z

Acer negundo
Acer rubrum
Acer saccharum
Acer spicatum

Acorus americanus
Actaea alba
Adder's Tongue, Limestone
Adiantum pedatum
Adlumia fungosa
Aesculus glabra
Aesculus pavia
Agalinis purpurea
Agalinis tenuifolia

Agave lechugilla
Ageratum, Wild
Alder, Smooth
Alder, Speckled

Allium cernuum
Allium tricoccum
Alnus incana
Alnus serrulata

Alstroemeria sp.
Alumroot
Ambrosia artemisifolia
Amelanchier arborea
Amelanchier stolonifera

Amphicarpa bracteata
Anemone quinquefolia
Anemone virginiana
Anemone Wood
Anemone, False Rue
Anemone, Rue
Anemonella thalictroides

Aplectrum hyemale
Apocynum cannabinum
Aquilegia canadensis
Aralia hispida
Aralia nudicaulis
Aralia racemosa

Aralia spinosa
Arbutus, Trailing
Argemone albiflora
Argyreia nervosa
Arisaema draconitum
Arisaema triphyllum

Aronia melanocarpa
Arrowhead, Common
Arrowwood
Asarum canadense
Asclepias amplexicaulis
Asclepias exaltata
Asclepias asperula
Asclepias incarnata
Asclepias quadrifolia
Asclepias syriaca
Asclepias tuberosa
Asclepias verticillata
Asclepias viridiflora

Ash, Prickly
Asimina triloba
Asplenium rhizophyllum
Asplenium ruta-muraria
Asplenium trichomanes

Aster cordifolius
Aster divaricatus
Aster lanceolatus
Aster lateriflorus
Aster macrophyllus
Aster novae-angliae
Aster phlogifolius
Aster pilosus
Aster prenanthoides
Aster, Awl
Aster, Bigleaf
Aster, Calico
Aster, Heart-Leaved Blue
Aster, Late Purple
Aster, New England
Aster, Panicled
Aster, White Wood
Aster, Zigzag

Asterella tenella
Aureolaria laevigata
Azalea, Pinkster Flower
Azalea, Rosebud

Baccharis magellanicus
Balm, Basil
Balm, Bee
Balm, Horse

Baneberry, White
Baptisia tinctoria
Bartonia virginica
Bartonia, Yellow
Basswood
Beakrush, White
Beardtongue, Northeastern
Beardtongue, Tall White

Beechdrops
Bellflower, Tall
Bellwort, Large-Flowered
Bellwort, Perfoliate

Bergamot, Wild
Betula papyrifera
Bidens aristosa
Bindweed, Upright
Birch, Paper
Bird-of-Paradise
Bishop's Cap
Bittersweet, American
Bladdernut
Bladderwort, Common
Bloodroot
Bluebells, Virginia
Blueberry, Highbush
Blueberry, Lowbush

Bluebonnet, Desert
Blue-Eyed Grass
Blue-Eyed Grass, Narrow-Leaved

Bluets
Bluets, Long-Leaved

Bomaria sp.
Boneset
Botrichium oneidense
Botrichium virginianum

Bouteloua curtipendula
Bowman's Root
Box Elder
Brasenia schreberi
Breeches, Dutchman's
Brome, Prairie
Bromeliad sp.
Bromus kalmii
Brown-Eyed Susan
Buckeye, Ohio
Buckeye, Red

Buddleja davidii
Buddleja nitida
Bunchberry
Bur Reed
Bush, Butterfly
Buttercup, Early
Buttonbush
Cactus, Dutchman's Pipe
Cactus, Red Star-Spine
Calceolaria sp.
Calla palusris
Calla (Lily), Wild
Calopogon tuberosus
Caltha palustris
Calystegia spithamaea
Camassia scilloides
Campanula americana
Campanula rotundifolia
Campion, Starry
Campsis radicans
Cancer-Root, One-Flowered
Cannabis sativa
Cardamine bulbosa
Cardamine concatenata
Cardamine diphylla
Cardinal Flower
Carex atlantica
Carex crinata
Carex folliculata
Carex lupulina
Carex lurida
Carex pennsylvanica

Carex scoparia
Carpenter's Square
Carpinus caroliniana
Carya cordiformis
Castanea dentata
Castilleja coccinea
Castilleja purpurea
Castilleja talamancensis
Catalpa speciosa
Catalpa, Hardy
Catchfly, Royal
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Ceiba speciosa
Celastrus scandens
Celtis tenuifolia
Ceonothus americanus
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cercis canadensis
Chain Fern, Virginia
Chamaedaphne calyculata
Chelone glabra
Chenopodium album
Cherry. Black
Chestnut, American
Chimaphila maculata
Chionanthus virginicus
Chokeberry, Black
Chokecherry

Chronic, The
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cinquefoil, Canada
Cirsium discolor
Cirsium undulatum
Claytonia caroliniana
Claytonia virginiana

Clearweed
Clematis occidentalis
Clematis pitcheri
Clematis virginiana
Clematis, Purple

Cliffbrake, Purple
Climber, Scarlet Cardinal
Clintonia borealis
Clubmoss, Northern Bog
Coffee Tree, Kentucky
Cohosh, Black
Cohosh, Blue
Collinsonia canadensis
Colt'sfoot
Columbine, Wild
Comandra umbellata
Commelina virginiana
Comptonia peregrina
Coneflower, Green-Headed
Coneflower, Purple
Coneflower, Western
Conopholis americana
Conopholis mexicana
Cooperia drummondii
Coptis groenlandica
Coreopsis lanceolata
Coreopsis tripteris
Coreopsis, Lance-Leaved
Coreopsis, Tall

Cornus alternifolia
Cornus canadensis
Cornus florida
Cornus serecia

Corydalis sempervirens
Corydalis, Pale

Corylus americana
Corynaea crassa
Cottongrass, Tawny
Cow Wheat
Creeper, Trumpet
Crown-of-Thorns
Cucumber Root, Indian
Cucumber, Wild
Culver's Root
Currant, Wild Black
Cuscuta campestris
Cuscuta cephalanthi
Cuscuta compacta
Cuscuta gronovii

Cycas revoluta
Cypella herbertii
Cypripedium acaule
Cypripedium pubescens

Dalibarda repens
Dandelion, Orange Dwarf
Datura stramonium
Dayflower, Virginia
Daylily
Dead-Nettle, Spotted
Decodon verticillatus
Deerberry
Delphinium tricorne
Dendrophthora squamigera
Dentaria laciniata
Desmodium cuspidatum
Desmodium glutinosum

Dewdrop
Dicentra canadensis
Dicentra cucullaria

Diervilla lonicera
Dioscorea villosa
Diphasiastrum digitatum
Diphyllea cymosa
Dodder, Buttonbush
Dodder, Common
Dodder, Compact
Dodder, Field

Dogwood, Flowering
Dogwood, Pagoda
Dogwood, Red Osier

Doll's Eyes
Drimys winterana
Drosera rotundifolia
Dryopteris intermedia
Echinacea purpurea
Echinocereus triglochidiatus
Echinocystis lobata
Echinopsis chilensis
Elderberry
Elderberry, Red
Elm, American
Elm, Slippery
Elymus hystrix
Embothrium coccineum
Epifagus virginiana
Epigaea repens
Epipactis helliborine
Epiphyllum oxypetallum
Equisetum arvense
Erigenia bulbosa
Erigeron pulchellus
Eriophorum virginicum
Eryngium horridum
Erythronium albidum
Erythronium americanum

Eupatorium coelestinum
Eupatorium fistulosum
Eupatorium maculatum
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Eupatorium purpureum
Eupatorium rugosum
Eupatorium sessilifolium

Euthamia graminifolia
Euphorbia coronata
Evening Primrose
False Foxglove, Appalachian
False Indigo, Yellow
False Solomon's Seal
False Solomon's Seal, Starry

Fern, Bracken
Fern, Christmas
Fern, Cinnamon
Fern, Interrupted

Fern, Maidenhair
Fern, Rattlesnake
Fern, Royal
Fern, Sweet

Fern, Walking
Figwort, Eastern
Filipendula rubra
Firebush, Chilean
Flag, Blue
Flax, Grooved Yellow
Foamflower
Forget-Me-Not
Fouquieria splendens
Fragaria virginiana
Fringe Tree
Gaiadendron punctatum
Galearis spectabilis
Gaultheria procumbens
Gaura biennis
Gaura, Biennial
Gaylusacia baccata
Gaywings
Gentian, Bottle
Gentian, Fringed
Gentian, Stiff
Gentiana clausa
Gentiana crinita
Gentiana quinquefolia
Gentianella quinquefolia
Gentianopsis crinita

Geranium maculatum
Geranium, Wild

Gerardia, Slender
Gerardia, Smooth

Gillenia trifoliatus
Ginger, Wild
Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo
Ginseng, American
Ginseng, Dwarf

Globeflower, Spreading
Golden Alexanders, Heart-Leaved
Goldenrod, Blue-Stemmed
Goldenrod, Canada
Goldenrod, Early
Goldenrod, Elm-Leaved
Goldenrod, Rough

Goldenrod, Stiff
Goldenrod, Wreath
Goldenseal
Goldthread
Gramma, Side-Oats
Grape, Frost
Grape, Summer
Grape Fern, Blunt-Lobed
Grass, Bottlebrush
Green Dragon
Ground Pine
Guiadendron punctatum
Gunnera insignis
Gymnocladus dioica
Habenaria orbiculata
Hackberry, Dwarf
Hamamelis virginiana
Harbinger-of-Spring
Harebell
Hazelnut, American
Hedyotis caerulea
Hedyotis longifolia

Helianthus decapetalus
Helianthus divaricatus

Heliconia sp.
Hemerocallis fulva
Hemlock, Eastern
Hemp
Hemp, Indian
Hepatica americana
Hepatica, Round-Lobed

Heuchera americana
Hibiscus palustris
Hickory, Bitternut
Holly, Mountain
Honeysuckle, Bush
Honeysuckle, Trumpet
Honeysuckle, Wild

Hornbeam, American
Horsetail, Field
Houstonia caerulea
Huckleberry, Black
Hyacinth, Wild
Hybanthus concolor
Hydrangea arborescens
Hydrangea. Wild
Hydrastis canadensis
Hydrophyllum virginianum
Hypericum ellipticum
Hypericum mitchellianum
Ilex montana
Illicium floridanum
Impatiens capensis
Impatiens pallida

Ipomoea purpurea
Iris cristata
Iris versicolor
Iris, Dwarf Crested

Ironweed, Tall
Ironwood
Isoetes piedmontana
Isopyrum biternatum
Isotria verticillata
Ivy, Poison
Jack-in-the-Pulpit
Jacob's Ladder, Creeping
Jeffersonia diphylla
Jewelweed, Pale
Jewelweed, Spotted

Jimsonweed
Joe-Pye Weed, Hollow
Joe-Pye Weed, Spotted
Joe-Pye Weed, Sweet

Juglans nigra
Juncus effusus
Juneberry
Kalmia latifolia
Knotweed, Virginia
Krigia biflora
Lady's Slipper, Pink
Lady's Slipper, Yellow
Lady's Tresses, Nodding

Lamium maculatum
Lamb's Quarters
Laportea canadensis
Larch, American
Larix laricina

Larkspur, Dwarf
Lathyrus latifolius
Laural, Bay
Laurel, Mountain
Leatherleaf

Lechugilla
Leek, Wild
Lilium canadense
Lilium philadelphicum
Lilium superbum
Lily, Blue bead
Lily, Canada
Lily, Rain
Lily. Turk's Cap
Lily. Wood
Lily-of-the-Valley, Wild

Linden, American
Lindera benzoin
Linum sulcatum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tulipifera
Listera cordata
Listera smallii
Lithospermum canescens
Lizard's Tail
Lobelia cardinalis
Lobelia inflata
Lobelia siphilitica
Lobelia spicata
Lobelia, Great Blue
Lobelia, Spiked

Locust, Black
Lonicera dioica
Lonicera sempervirens

Loosestrife, Fringed
Loosestrife, Whorled

Lopseed
Lotus, American Water
Ludwigia peploides
Lupine, Wild
Lupinus havardii
Lupinus perennis
Luzula echinata
Lycopodiella inundata
Lycopodium digitatum
Lycopodium inundatum
Lycopodium obscurum

Lysimachia ciliata
Lysimachia quadrifolia

Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia, Cucumber
Magnolia, Southern
Maianthemum canadense
Maple, Ash-Leaved
Maple, Mountain
Maple, Red
Maple, Sugar

Marigold, Marsh
Marijuana
Mayapple
Mayflower, Canada
Meadow Beauty, Pale
Meadow Rue, Early
Meadow Rue, Tall

Meadowsweet
Medeola virginiana
Melampyrum lineare
Menispermum canadense
Mertensia virginica
Milkweed, Antelope-Horn
Milkweed, Blunt-Leaved
Milkweed, Common
Milkweed, Four-Leaved
Milkweed, Green
Milkweed, Poke
Milkweed, Swamp
Milkweed, Whorled

Milkwort, Fringed
Mimulus ringens
Misodendrum angulatum
Misodendrum linearifolium
Mistletoe, Feathery

Mitchella repens
Mitella diphylla
Miterwort

Monarda clinopodia
Monarda didyma
Monarda fistulosa

Monkeyflower
Monotropa hypopithys
Monotropa uniflora

Moonseed
Morning Glory, Blue
Morning Glory, Wooly

Moss, Reindeer
Mountain Ash, American
Mountain Mint, Hoary
Myosotis scorpioides
Nasa dyeri
Nelumbo lutea
Nemopanthus mucronatus
Nettle, Horse
Nettle, Wood
Ninebark
Nuphar advena
Nymphaea odorata

Oak, Bur
Oats, Wild
Obolaria virginica
Ocotillo
Oenethera biennis
Oenethera fruticosa
Onion, Nodding Wild
Ophioglossum engelmannii
Opuntia engelmannii
Orchid, Hellebore
Orchis spectabilis
Orchis, Showy

Orobanche uniflora
Osmorhiza claytonii
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytonii

Osmunda regalis
Oxalis acetosella
Paintbrush, Indian
Panax quinquefolius
Panax trifolius

Partridgeberry
Pawpaw
Pea, Everlasting
Peanut, Hog

Pellaea atropurpurea
Pennywort
Penstemon diditalis
Penstemon hirsutus

Perezia recurvata
Petunia, Wild
Phacelia bipinnatifida
Phacelia, Purple

Phlox divaricata
Phlox glaberrima
Phlox paniculata
Phlox subulata
Phlox, Moss
Phlox, Smooth
Phlox, Tall
Phlox, Wild Blue

Phoradendron villosum
Phryma leptostachya
Physocarpus opulifolius
Phytolacca americana
Pickerelweed
Pilea pumilla
Pimpernel, Yellow
Pine, Table Mountain
Pinesap
Pink, Fire
Pink, Grass (Orchid)
Pink, Indian
Pinus pungens
Pipe, Indian
Piper sp.
Pitcher Plant, Purple
Platanthera orbiculata
Podophyllum peltatum
Pogonia, Whorled
Pokeweed
Polemonium reptans
Polygala senega
Polygala paucifolia
Polygala, Fringed

Polygonatum pubescens
Polygonum virginianum
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polytrichum concinnum
Pond Lily, Yellow
Pontederia cordata
Poppy, Wood
Porteranthus trifoliatus
Potentilla canadensis
Prenanthes alba
Prickly-Pear, Texas
Prickly-Poppy, White
Prunus serotina
Psittacanthus sp.
Pteridium aquilinum
Puccoon, Hoary
Puttyroot
Puya dasylirioides
Pycnanthemum muticum
Pyrola elliptica
Queen-of-the-Prairie
Quercus macrocarpa
Quillwort, Piedmont
Ragweed
Ragwort, Golden
Ramps
Ranunculus fascicularis
Raspberry, Flowering
Rattlesnake Master
Rattlesnake Root, Pale
Redbud
Rein Orchis, Round-Leaved
Rhexia mariana
Rhododendron
Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron periclymenoides
Rhododendron prinophyllum

Rhus glabra
Rhus typhina

Rhynchospora alba
Ribes americanum
Robinia pseudoacacia
Robin's Plantain
Rosa cultivars
Rose cultivars
Rose-Mallow, Swamp
Rubus odoratus
Rudbeckia laciniata
Rudbeckia occidentalis

Rudbeckia triloba
Ruellia humilis
Running Pine
Rush, Soft
Rush, Wood
Sagittaria latifolia
Sago Palm
Salix discolor
Salix eriocephala
Salix sericea
Sambucus canadensis
Sambucus racemosa
Sanguinaria canadensis
Sarracenia purpurea
Sarsparilla, Bristly
Sarsparilla, Wild
Sassafras
Sassafras albidum
Saururus cernuus
Saxifraga michauxii
Saxifraga virginiana
Saxifrage, Claw
Saxifrage, Early

Scrophularia marilandica
Scutellaria galericulata
Scutellaria incana
Scutellaria lateriflora

Sedge, Bog
Sedge, Broom
Sedge, Follicle
Sedge, Fringed
Sedge, Hop
Sedge, Lance-Fruited Oval
Sedge, Sallow
Sedge, Wood

Sedum ternatum
Senecio aureus
Serviceberry, Downy
Shinleaf
Silene regia
Silene stellata
Silene virginica

Sisyrhinchium angustifolium
Sisyrhinchium montanum

Skullcap, Common
Skullcap, Downy
Skullcap, Mad-Dog

Skunk Cabbage
Smilacina racemosa
Smilacina stellata

Snakeroot, Seneca
Snakeroot, White

Solanum carolinense
Solanum glaucophyllum
Solidago caesia
Solidago canadensis
Solidago juncea
Solidago rigida
Solidago rugosa
Solidago ulmifolia

Solomon's Seal
Sorbus americana
Sparganium americanum
Spanish Mosh, Tufted
Spatterdock
Speedwell, Bird'seye
Spicebush
Spiderwort, Ohio
Spigelia marilandica
Spikenard
Spiraea alba
Spiranthes cernua
Spleenwort, Maidenhair
Spleenwort, Wall-Rue

Spring Beauty
Spring Beauty, Carolina

Squawroot
Squirrel Corn
St. John's Wort, Marsh
St. John's Wort, Mt. Mitchell
Staphylea trifoliata
Star Anise, American
Starflower
Stonecrop
Strawberry, Barren
Strawberry, Wild
Strelitzia reginae
Stylophorum diphyllum
Sumac, Smooth
Sumac, Staghorn

Sundew, Round-Leaved
Sundrops
Sunflower, Thin-Leaved
Sunflower, Tickseed
Sunflower, Woodland

Sweet Cicely
Sweetflag
Sweetgum
Symplocarpus foetidus
Taenidia integerrima
Tamarack
Tea, New Jersey
Thalictrum dioicum
Thalictrum pubescens
Thalictrum thalictroides

Thimbleweed
Thistle, Field
Thornapple
Thoroughwort, Upland
Tiarella cordifolia
Tick-Trefoil, Big
Tick-Trefoil, Sticky

Tilia americana
Tillandsia recurvata
Toadflax, Bastard
Toadshade
Toadshade, Pacific White

Tobacco, Indian
Toothwort, Cut-Leaved
Toxicodendron radicans
Tradescantia ohioensis
Tree, Maidenhair
Trientalis borealis
Trillium albidum
Trillium cuneatum
Trillium erectum
Trillium flexipes
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium luteum
Trillium nivale
Trillium sessile
Trillium sulcatum
Trillium undulatum
Trillium, Barksdale's
Trillium, Bent
Trillium, Large White
Trillium, Painted
Trillium, Purple
Trillium, Snow
Trillium, Yelow

Triodanis perfoliata
Tristerix aphyllus
Tristerix corymbosus
Tristerix sp.

Trollius laxus
Trout Lily
Trout Lily, White

Tsuga canadensis
Tuliptree
Turtlehead, White
Tussilago farfara
Twayblade, Heart-Leaved
Twayblade, Kidney-Leaved (Small's)
Twinleaf
Ulmus americana
Ulmus rubra
Umbrella Leaf
Umbrella, Poor Man's
Utricularia vulgaris
Uvularia grandiflora
Uvularia perfoliata
Uvularia sessiliflora

Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium stamineum

Venus' Looking Glass
Verbena hastata
Vernonia gigantea
Veronica persica
Veronicastrum virginianum

Vervain, Blue
Viburnum acerifolium
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum, Maple-Leaved

Vine, Allegheny
Viola blanda
Viola canadensis
Viola cucullata
Viola labradorica
Viola palmata
Viola pedata
Viola pubescens
Viola rostrata
Viola sagittata
Viola sororia
Viola striata

Violet, Bird'sfoot

Violet, Canada
Violet, Cream

Violet, Dog
Violet, Downy Yellow
Violet, Early Blue
Violet, Green
Violet, Long-Spurred
Violet, Marsh Blue
Violet, Ovate-Leaved
Violet, Palmate

Violet, Running
Violet, Sweet White
Virgin's Bower
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis riparia
Waldestenia fragarioides
Walking-stick, Devil's
Walnut, Black
Water Lily, Tuberous
Waterleaf, Virginia
Water-shield
Weed, Butterfly
Whippoorwill Flower
Willow, Diamond
Willow, Pussy
Willow, Silky
Willow, Water
Wintergreen
Wintergreen, Spotted
Witch Hazel
Wood Fern, Evergreen
Wood Sorrel, Northern
Woodwardia virginica
Yamroot, Wild
Yucca rostrata
Yucca, Beak-Fruited

Zamia furfuracea
Zanthoxylum americanum
Zingiber sp.
Zizia aptera